Screening recommendations for osteoporosis secondary to hematological malignancies

Screening for osteoporosis is mostly done using bone density testing such as DXA. This is a type of X-ray that involves minimal radiation exposure, and it is the most reliable method used. Other screening tools include pDXA and ultrasound. QCT is not used as often because it involves high radiation exposure.

For a DXA, you lie on a table while the X-ray detects your bone density. The test does not require sedation and is not associated with any discomfort. The X-ray detector then sends information to the connected computer, which calculates the results and reports them as a T and Z score. The T score values are used to make clinical recommendations for adults. A T score higher than -1 can be interpreted as normal bone density, a T score between -1 and -2.5 is referred to as osteopenia (decreased bone density but not osteoporosis), and a T score lower than -2.5 is considered osteoporosis. If you are pregnant, you cannot get a DEXA scan because the minimal exposure to ionizing radiation, although harmless to you, can potentially harm the developing fetus. If you have osteoporosis and a fracture you are called “established osteoporosis”.

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